Dry Eye Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Dry eye syndrome, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a common eye condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly, leading to a lack of lubrication and moisture on the eye’s surface. This can result in discomfort, irritation, and potential damage to the eyes if left untreated. In this blog, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and various treatment options available for individuals suffering from dry eye syndrome, offering valuable insights to help you manage this condition effectively.

Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome:

Dry eye syndrome, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, occurs when the eyes do not receive sufficient lubrication and moisture due to a disturbance in the tear film’s balance. Tears play a crucial role in maintaining eye health by nourishing and protecting the ocular surface, ensuring clear vision, and preventing infection. When the tear film’s composition or production is disrupted, dry eye symptoms can emerge, causing discomfort and irritation. Let’s explore the various causes of dry eye syndrome in detail:

1. Age and Gender:

One of the primary factors influencing the development of dry eye syndrome is age. Tear production naturally decreases as we age, with individuals over the age of 50 being more susceptible to developing dry eyes. This decline in tear production is more pronounced in postmenopausal women due to hormonal changes, making them more likely to experience dry eye symptoms compared to men of the same age.

2. Environmental Factors:

The environment we live in significantly impacts our eyes’ health, particularly in the case of dry eye syndrome. Exposure to certain environmental conditions can increase tear evaporation and exacerbate dry eye symptoms. Common environmental factors include:

  • Dry Climate: Living in arid or low-humidity regions can lead to rapid tear evaporation, causing dry eyes.
  • Wind and Dust: Windy conditions can contribute to increased tear evaporation and introduce dust and allergens into the eyes, leading to irritation.
  • Air Conditioning and Heating: Artificial heating and cooling systems can dry out the air in indoor environments, reducing humidity levels and worsening dry eye symptoms.
  • High Altitudes: Being at high altitudes can also contribute to drier air, leading to more significant tear evaporation.

3. Medical Conditions and Systemic Diseases:

Several medical conditions and systemic diseases can impact tear production and the overall health of the eyes, increasing the risk of dry eye syndrome. Some common conditions include:

  • Sjögren’s Syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands responsible for producing tears and saliva.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Another autoimmune disorder that can lead to inflammation of the tear glands.
  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes may experience damage to blood vessels and nerves that supply the eyes, leading to decreased tear production.
  • Thyroid Disorders: An overactive or underactive thyroid gland can disrupt tear production and lead to dry eyes.

4. Medications:

Certain medications can cause dry eye symptoms as a side effect. These medications include:

  • Antihistamines: Commonly used to treat allergies, antihistamines can reduce tear production.
  • Decongestants: These medications may lead to decreased tear production as they constrict blood vessels, reducing blood flow to the tear glands.
  • Antidepressants: Some antidepressants, particularly those from the tricyclic class, may interfere with tear production.

5. Prolonged Screen Time and Digital Eye Strain:

With the rise in technology use, prolonged screen time has become increasingly common. Staring at screens, whether from computers, smartphones, or other digital devices, reduces the blink rate, leading to reduced tear distribution across the eye’s surface. This can result in dryness and discomfort, commonly known as digital eye strain or computer vision syndrome.

6. Contact Lens Wear:

Contact lenses can contribute to dry eye syndrome, particularly if they are worn for extended periods or if the wearer has a history of dry eyes. Contacts can disrupt the tear film and reduce oxygen flow to the cornea, leading to dryness and discomfort.

7. Hormonal Changes:

Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy and menopause can affect tear production, leading to temporary or chronic dry eye symptoms in some individuals.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome:

Dry eye syndrome can manifest in various ways. Some common symptoms include:

  • Persistent dryness and irritation in the eyes.
  • A sensation of foreign particles or grittiness in the eyes.
  • Redness and inflammation of the eyes.
  • Watery eyes (paradoxically, this can occur as the eyes try to compensate for the lack of moisture).
  • Blurred vision, particularly during prolonged periods of reading or computer use.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Difficulty wearing contact lenses comfortably.

Prevention and Self-Care Tips:

While complete prevention may not be possible, certain self-care practices can alleviate dry eye symptoms:

  • Blink regularly: Be conscious of blinking, especially during long periods of screen time, as this helps spread tears across the eye’s surface.
  • Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water to maintain adequate hydration, which can also benefit the eyes.
  • Adjust your environment: Use a humidifier to add moisture to dry indoor air, and avoid direct exposure to fans or air conditioning vents.
  • Follow the 20-20-20 rule: Take breaks during screen time every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds to reduce eye strain.
  • Protect your eyes: Wear sunglasses outdoors to shield your eyes from wind and dust.

Seeking Professional Treatment:

If self-care measures do not provide sufficient relief, it’s essential to consult an eye care professional. An eye doctor can conduct a comprehensive eye exam to diagnose dry eye syndrome and recommend appropriate treatment. Some treatment options include:

  • Artificial tears: Over-the-counter lubricating eye drops can help provide temporary relief and add moisture to the eyes.
  • Prescription eye drops: Your eye doctor may prescribe medicated eye drops that stimulate tear production or reduce inflammation.
  • Punctal plugs: These tiny silicone plugs are inserted into the tear ducts to block drainage, keeping the tears on the eye’s surface longer.
  • Meibomian gland expression: This procedure helps unclog the oil glands on the eyelids, which can improve tear film stability.
  • Omega-3 supplements: Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate dry eye symptoms.
  • Olexium Dry Eye Ultra: Advanced Relief for Dry Eye SyndromeOlexium Dry Eye Ultra is a clinically tested pill formulated to combat Dry Eye Syndrome effectively. With just one daily small pill, it provides relief, repair, and protection. Within two weeks, it promotes healthy tear production, stabilizes the tear film, reduces inflammation, and minimizes ocular surface damage. Experience the difference with Olexium Dry Eye Ultra and reclaim comfort for your eyes.

Lifestyle Changes for Long-term Relief:

Making certain lifestyle adjustments can contribute to long-term relief from dry eye syndrome:

  • Proper nutrition: A balanced diet rich in vitamins A, C, and E, as well as omega-3 fatty acids, can support eye health.
  • Reduce screen time: Limiting screen time and taking regular breaks can reduce eye strain and dryness.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking can worsen dry eye symptoms, so quitting can be beneficial.


Dry eye syndrome is a common condition that can significantly impact daily life if left untreated. By understanding its causes, recognizing the symptoms, and adopting self-care practices, individuals can manage their dry eyes more effectively. Seeking professional treatment when needed and making lifestyle changes can contribute to long-term relief and maintain the health of your precious eyes. Remember, if you experience persistent or severe dry eye symptoms, consult an eye care professional promptly for personalized care and treatment. Your eyes deserve the best care you can provide.